Instituto Vita Sana

Formações em Saúde Natural 

Dietoterapia - Terapia através dos alimentos

 

O que é dieta cetôgénica? 


 A dieta cetogênica é composta por uma dieta muito baixa em carboidratos, rica em gordura, que é bastante semelhante com as dietas Atkins e low-carb. Para seguir corretamente este tipo de dieta é necessário reduzir drasticamente a ingestão de carboidratos e substituí-lo por gordura saudável de alta qualidade. Esta redução em carboidratos transforma seu corpo em um estado metabólico chamado cetose. Quando isso acontece, seu corpo se torna incrivelmente eficiente na queima de gordura para energia. Também transforma gordura em cetonas no fígado, que podem fornecer energia para o cérebro. As dietas cetôgénica podem causar reduções maciças nos níveis de açúcar no sangue e insulina. Isso, juntamente com o aumento das cetonas, tem inúmeros benefícios para a saúde. 


Como começar a dieta cetôgénica? 


Para fazer a dieta keto, deve-se eliminar todos os alimentos ricos em carboidratos, como pão e arroz, e aumentar principalmente o consumo de alimentos ricos em gorduras, além de manter uma boa quantidade de proteína na dieta. Esta dieta usa a gordura em si como fonte de energia e não o carboidrato que vem da dieta. Esse tipo de alimentação é indicado principalmente para controlar e prevenir convulsões na epilepsia, mas também tem sido usado para acelerar a perda de peso e, em alguns casos, para o tratamento do câncer, porque as células cancerígenas se alimentam principalmente de carboidrato, que é o nutriente retirado. da dieta cetônica. 


Como a dieta Cetogênica funciona em nosso corpo? 


A dieta ceto consiste em uma redução drástica de carboidratos na dieta, que só participará de 10 a 15% das calorias diárias. Para compensar essa redução, deve haver um grande aumento no consumo de gordura, representado por alimentos como abacate, óleo de coco, sementes de girassol, sementes de abóbora, manteiga, azeite de oliva, amendoim, nozes e amêndoas. Além disso, a quantidade de proteína também deve aumentar até que seja cerca de 30% da comida, e é necessário comer carne, frango ou peixe no almoço e no jantar, e incluir ovos e queijos em lanches. Outra dieta muito semelhante à cetogênica é a dieta baixa em carboidratos, e a principal diferença é que a dieta keto faz um uso muito maior de gorduras para compensar a falta de carboidratos. 


Como fazer um plano de dieta ceto?


Se você está motivado para tentar a dieta cetônica, você vai querer manter os parâmetros do plano alimentar. Aproximadamente 60 a 80 por cento de suas calorias virão de gorduras de boa qualidade. Isso significa que você vai comer carnes, gorduras e óleos e uma quantidade muito limitada de vegetais sem amido (o melhor seria 0% de carboidratos na dieta cetônica). As calorias restantes na dieta ceto vêm da proteína - cerca de 1 grama (g) por quilograma de peso corporal, portanto, uma mulher de 140 quilos precisaria de cerca de 64 g de proteína total. Quanto aos carboidratos, a maioria das pessoas mantém cetose com entre 20 e 50 g de carboidratos líquidos por dia. Se você comer algo tão pequeno quanto uma porção de blueberries, seu corpo pode voltar a queimar carboidratos como combustível, em vez de gordura. 


O que comer no menu de dieta keto? 


Proteínas 

Freqüentemente: (a dieta cetônica não é rica em proteínas, o foco principal é a gordura, então a proteína deve ser consumida com moderação.): 

Carne alimentada com capim, Peixe, especialmente peixe gordo, como salmão, frango de carne escura 

Ocasionalmente: Bacon, proteínas de baixo teor de gordura, como peito de frango sem pele e camarão. Estes são ótimos para incluir, em sua dieta cetônica, mas adicionar um molho no topo de alguma gordura, em vez de comer simples.


Evite: Frios com adição de açúcar, Carne que tenha sido marinada em molhos açucarados, Peixe ou nuggets de frango. 


Óleo e Gordura

 

Freqüentemente: óleo de abacate; Azeite; Óleo de côco; Manteiga; Creme de leite Ocasionalmente :, (Limite o seu consumo de alimentos embalados, em que estes são frequentemente encontrados.); Óleo de girassol; Óleo de cártamo; Óleo de milho Evite: Margarina; Gorduras trans artificiais 


Frutas e Vegetais 


Freqüentemente: Abacate; Verduras folhosas, como espinafre e rúcula; Aipo; Espargos Ocasionalmente: (Ainda são ótimas opções, mas você também precisará contabilizar esses carboidratos.) Alho-poró; Espaguete de abóbora; Berinjela Evite: Batatas; Milho; Passas de uva Nozes e sementes Freqüentemente: Nozes; Amêndoas; Sementes de linhaça e chia Ocasionalmente: manteigas de nozes não açucaradas (amêndoas ou manteiga de amendoim); Castanha de caju; pistachios Evite: Trilha mistura com frutas secas; Nozes adoçadas ou manteigas de sementes; Porcas cobertas de chocolate. Lacticínios Freqüentemente: queijo Cheddar; Queijo azul; Queijo feta Ocasionalmente: queijo cottage integral; Iogurte grego sem gordura; Queijo ricota cheio de gordura Evite: leite; Iogurte não gordo adoçado, Sorvete Adoçantes Freqüentemente: Pratique moderação com adoçantes. Ocasionalmente: Stevia; Eritritol; Xilitol Evite: Agave; Querida; Xarope de bordo; Açúcares brancos e marrons Condimentos e Molhos Freqüentemente: Guacamole; Molho de manteiga de limão; Maionese. Ocasionalmente: alho cru; Molho de tomate; Vinagre balsâmico Evite: molho de churrasco; Ketchup; Mostarda de mel 



How to make a keto diet plan:


If you are motivated to try the keto diet, you will want to stick to the parameters of the eating plan. Roughly 60 to 80 percent of your calories will come from good quality fats. That means you’ll eat meats, fats, and oils, and a very limited amount of non-starchy vegetables ( the best would be 0% carbs on the keto diet.)

The remaining calories in the keto diet come from protein — about 1 gram (g) per kilogram of body weight, so a 140-pound woman would need about 64 g of protein total. As for carbs most people maintain ketosis with between 20 and 50 g of net carbs per day.

If you eat something as small as a serving of blueberries, your body could revert to burning carbohydrates for fuel rather than fat.


What to eat on the keto diet menu?


Proteins


Frequently: (keto diet is not high in protein, the main focus is on fat, so protein should be consumed in moderation.): Grass-fed beef, Fish, especially fatty fish, like salmon, dark meat chicken

Occasionally: Bacon, Low-fat proteins, like skinless chicken breast and shrimp. These are great to include , in your keto diet, but add a sauce on top for some fat rather than eating plain.

Avoid: Cold cuts with added sugar, Meat that has been marinated in sugary sauces, Fish or chicken nuggets.


Oil and Fat


Frequently: Avocado oil; Olive oil; Coconut oil; Butter; Heavy cream

Occasionally:, (Limit your consumption of packaged foods, which these are often found in.); Sunflower oil; Safflower oil; Corn oil

Avoid: Margarine; Artificial trans fats


Fruits and Veggies


Frequently: Avocado; Leafy greens, like spinach and arugula; Celery; Asparagus

Occasionally: (These are still great choices, but you’ll also need to count these carbs.) Leeks; Spaghetti squash; Eggplant

Avoid: Potatoes; Corn; Raisins


Nuts and Seeds


Frequently: Walnuts; Almonds; Flaxseed and chia seeds

Occasionally: Unsweetened nut butters (almond or peanut butter); Cashews; Pistachios

Avoid: Trail mixes with dried fruit; Sweetened nut or seed butters; Chocolate-covered nuts.


Dairy Products


Frequently: Cheddar cheese; Blue cheese; Feta cheese

Occasionally: Full-fat cottage cheese; Full-fat plain Greek yogurt; Full-fat ricotta cheese

Avoid: Milk; Sweetened non-fat yogurt, Ice cream


Sweeteners


Frequently: Practice moderation with sweeteners.

Occasionally: Stevia; Erythritol; Xylitol

Avoid: Agave; Honey; Maple syrup; White and brown sugars


Condiments and Sauces


Frequently: Guacamole; Lemon butter sauce; Mayonnaise.

Occasionally: Raw garlic; Tomato sauce; Balsamic vinegar

Avoid: Barbecue sauce; Ketchup; Honey mustard


Drinks


Frequently: Water; Almond milk; Bone broth; Plain tea

Occasionally: Black coffee (watch caffeine consumption); Unsweetened carbonated water (limit only if bubbles make you bloated); Zero-calorie drinks

Avoid: Soda; Fruit juice; Lemonade


Herbs and Spices


Frequently: (all herbs and spices fit in a keto diet); Salt (salty foods); Pepper; Thyme, oregano, paprika, and cayenne

Occasionally (contain some carbs.); Ground ginger; Garlic powder; Onion powder

Avoid: Herbs and spices are generally okay to use in small amounts to add flavor to foods.


Supplements


Consider taking extra Fiber and Multivitamins, to prevent constipation and lack of vitamins from low intake of fruits.


Foods allowed and forbidden in keto diet menu


The following table shows which list of foods that are allowed and forbidden in Keto diet:


Allowed

Meat, fish, eggs
Preserved meats,ham, sausage and bacon

Olive Oil, Oils, Butter, Margarine
Cheese, sour cream and yogurts without sugar
Peanut, walnut, hazelnut, cast
Fruits
Seeds like flaxseed, chia, sunflower
Sauces like mayonnaise and mustard

Forbidden

Rice, noodles, corn
Beans, soybeans, peas, chickpeas
Wheat flour, oat
Bread, toast
Potato
Cakes, sweets, biscuits, chocolate
Powdered milk powder
Pizza, lasagne, yogurt with added sugar

It is important to remember that in this diet one should consume fruits and vegetables in the same way as in a normal diet without increasing the amount. Thus, 3 to 4 units of fruit per day and vegetables should be eaten at lunch and dinner times.
 

Know the different types of keto diets


There are different types of the keto diet, to adapt to each person health states and lifestyles:

1-Standard ketogenic diet: very low-carb, moderate-protein and high-fat diet. It typically contains 75% fat, 20% protein and only 5% carbs (1).

2-Cyclical ketogenic diet: have periods of higher-carb refeeds, such as 5 keto days followed by 2 high-carb days.

3-Targeted ketogenic diet: allows you to add carbs around workouts.

4-High-protein ketogenic diet: This is similar to a standard ketogenic diet, but includes more protein. The ratio is often 60% fat, 35% protein and 5% carbs.

The Cyclical or Targeted keto diets are more advanced methods and commonly used by bodybuilders or athletes.


Cyclical keto diet


The cyclical keto diet helps maintain good diet and good weight loss, helping to provide energy for physical exercise. One must follow the menu of the keto diet for 5 consecutive days, which are followed by 2 days in which it is allowed to consume foods with carbohydrates, such as bread, rice and pasta. However, foods like sweets, ice creams, cakes and other sugar-rich products should continue off the menu. 

Contraindications of keto diet

The keto diet is contraindicated for people over 65 years of age or with a history of problems such as liver or kidney failure, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and patients on cortisone-based medications. In these cases, the keto diet must be authorized by the physician and followed by a licensed nutritionist. 

Side effects of keto diet.

Excess dietary fat causes the child or adult patient to feel less hunger and loose apetite, requiring more effort during meals to force themselves to eat. In addition, during the adaptation phase, there may be intestinal problems such as constipation, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting.It is also common to not gain weight in children in the first year of the diet, but its growth and development should remain normal and should be accompanied by the pediatrician. Symptoms such as lethargy, irritability, and refusal to eat can also arise due to high fat foods intake.

What science says about the keto diet results- Scientific evidences


There are at the present several scientific studies about Keto diet or Low carb diets. Below you can read some of the most important studies done until now. The Keto or Ketogenic diet has proved to have health benefits results for several health problems.


The ketogenic diet: one decade later.


The ketogenic diet, a high fat, adequate protein, low carbohydrate diet, has, during the past decade, had a resurgence of interest for the treatment of difficult-to-control seizures in children. This review traces its history, reviews its uses and side effects, and discusses possible alternatives and the diet's possible mechanisms of action. Finally, this review looks toward possible future uses of the ketogenic diet for conditions other than epilepsy.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17332207


A Randomized Trial of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet for Obesity


Despite the popularity of the low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat (Atkins) diet, no randomized, controlled trials have evaluated its efficacy.

We conducted a one-year, multicenter, controlled trial involving 63 obese men and women who were randomly assigned to either a low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diet or a low-calorie, high-carbohydrate, low-fat (conventional) diet. Professional contact was minimal to replicate the approach used by most dieters.

The low-carbohydrate diet produced a greater weight loss (absolute difference, approximately 4 percent) than did the conventional diet for the first six months, but the differences were not significant at one year. The low-carbohydrate diet was associated with a greater improvement in some risk factors for coronary heart disease.


https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa022207


A Low-Carbohydrate as Compared with a Low-Fat Diet in Severe Obesity


The effects of a carbohydrate-restricted diet on weight loss and risk factors for atherosclerosis have been incompletely assessed. We randomly assigned 132 severely obese subjects (including 77 blacks and 23 women) with a mean body-mass index of 43 and a high prevalence of diabetes (39 percent) or the metabolic syndrome (43 percent) to a carbohydrate-restricted (low-carbohydrate) diet or a calorie- and fat-restricted (low-fat) diet.

Severely obese subjects with a high prevalence of diabetes or the metabolic syndrome lost more weight during six months on a carbohydrate-restricted diet than on a calorie- and fat-restricted diet, with a relative improvement in insulin sensitivity and triglyceride levels, even after adjustment for the amount of weight lost.


https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa022637


Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor in overweight adolescents


The low carbohydrate diet appears to be an effective method for short-term weight loss in overweight adolescents and does not harm the lipid profile


https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022347602402065


A randomized trial comparing a very low carbohydrate diet and a calorie-restricted low fat diet on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy women.


Untested alternative weight loss diets, such as very low carbohydrate diets, have unsubstantiated efficacy and the potential to adversely affect cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, we designed a randomized, controlled trial to determine the effects of a very low carbohydrate diet on body composition and cardiovascular risk factors. Based on these data, a very low carbohydrate diet is more effective than a low fat diet for short-term weight loss and, over 6 months, is not associated with deleterious effects on important cardiovascular risk factors in healthy women.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12679447


A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-fat diet to treat obesity and hyperlipidemia: a randomized, controlled trial.


Low-carbohydrate diets remain popular despite a paucity of scientific evidence on their effectiveness.To compare the effects of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet program with those of a low-fat, low-cholesterol, reduced-calorie diet.

Compared with a low-fat diet, a low-carbohydrate diet program had better participant retention and greater weight loss. During active weight loss, serum triglyceride levels decreased more and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level increased more with the low-carbohydrate diet than with the low-fat diet.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15148063


The effects of a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet and a low-fat diet on mood, hunger, and other self-reported symptoms.

To investigate the effects of weight loss diets on mood, food cravings, and other self-reported symptoms.

Regardless of diet, participants experienced significant improvement in a broad range of symptoms. Symptoms of negative affect and hunger improved to a greater degree in patients following an LCKD compared with those following an LFD. Whether these symptom changes explain the greater short-term weight loss generally experienced by LCKD followers deserves further research.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17228046


The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus


Dietary carbohydrate is the major determinant of postprandial glucose levels, and several clinical studies have shown that low-carbohydrate diets improve glycemic control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a diet lower in carbohydrate would lead to greater improvement in glycemic control over a 24-week period in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Dietary modification led to improvements in glycemic control and medication reduction/elimination in motivated volunteers with type 2 diabetes. The diet lower in carbohydrate led to greater improvements in glycemic control, and more frequent medication reduction/elimination than the low glycemic index diet. Lifestyle modification using low carbohydrate interventions is effective for improving and reversing type 2 diabetes.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2633336/


Other relevant scientific studies about keto Diet:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14525681

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6865776

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14769483

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11122785

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12079835